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The chair was first offered to Carducci who dechned it. Then he was in- vited to inaugurate the course, which he did with his discourse on U opera di Dante. The last part of it, given here, deals ex- clusively with the Divina Commedia. Dinanzi alia lo sublime fantasia si apri 1' infinito; e nell' infinito, con r ombra della religione, della storia, della poesia, si proiettavano il passato, il presente, il futuro. Dante cerco la patria nell' altro mondo: In his ambitious dreams, he conceived the idea of a universal monarchy, but his efforts toward such a realization were a complete failure in Italy.

At the death of Henry VII it was rumored that poi- soned sacramental wine was given to him by a Dominican monk. Tutto cio che il poeta ha scritto ha pensato ha fatto fin ora, si appunta nella S Commedia: Nelle rime era il fiorentino, primo lirico del medio evo; nei trattati, V italiano, IS primo filosofo laico del medio evo; nella Commedia, pur rimanendo il sommo poeta del medio evo, e piii largamente il poeta per eccellenza della gente latina e del cristianesimo, e, piu ancora, il poeta, nel sovrano senso della parola, di tutt' i tempi.

At the close of the Vita Nuova we read: Rossetti's translation of the Vita Nuova. The title of a work in the form of a prose commentary written by Dante on some of his moral poems canzoni. The reference is to the new languaf. Elsewhere Inferno, I, 87 in addressing Virgil, Dante tells him how he is indebted to him for: Lo bello stile che m' ha fatto onore. Beatrice procede dalla Vita nuova e dalla poesia cavalleresca e mistica; ma nella visione in vetta del Purgatorio il culto della donna diviene apoteosi, e Beatrice trasfigurata e la suprema 10 rappresentazione della civilta del medio evo.

Virgilio procede dalla dottrina classica del Convivio: Tra 1' antichita e il medio evo, 15 tra Virgilio e Beatrice, Dante e 1' uomo, il genere umano, che passa con le sue passioni, che ama e odia, erra e cade, si pente e si leva, e purgato e rigenerato e degno di salire alia perfezione dell' essere.

Con che la Commedia e, come il poeta la qualifico, 20 opera dottrinale; perche reca in atto la filosofia morale del Convivio, e specialmente la dottrina circa Tanima umana come disposta e tendente alia perfezione e alia felicita per due vie e per due guise. Ha per soggetto r uomo in quanto per il libero arbitrio e sommesso alia 25 giustizia che premia e puniscc, ha per oggetto rimovere i viventi in questa terra dallo stato di miseria e av- viarli alia perfezione e felicita temporale con I'esercizio delle virtu filosofiche e alia perfezione e beatitudine eterna con 1' esercizio delle teologiche.

Onde la visione, nell' altro mondo, delle anime dannate, penitenti, beate': E, in riguardo alia tendenza dell' anima verso la perfezione e felicita per due vie, temporale ed eterna, r allegoria e di due sensi: E quindi alia base terrena del poema, nella selva, offresi primo Virgilio, simbolo della ragione, della filosofia, dell' impero, a IS scorgere Dante, 1' uomo, alia temporale perfezione e felicita nel paradiso terrestre: The allegorical-moral meaning of the Divina Commedia.

Pero fu bene affermato che la Corn- media contiene della poetica ogni varieta di generi e forme: Pure informata alia scienza del medio evo, ma con s liberta e ardire straordinario di fantasie, e 1' architet- tura dei tre regni della morte. Per tanti gironi e cerchi, quante sono le partizioni dei peccati secondo la dottrina cristiana sottomessa all' etica di Aristotele, lo r inferno si profonda come un baratro fino al centro della terra; e la origine e la ragion d'essere ne e deter- minata con una invenzione terribilmente meravigliosa per dinamica e morale sublimita.

II mostro a mezza la persona sta inca- strato nel centro della terra, e sporge il capo nell' 20 ultimo girone dell' inferno, quarta ghiacciaia dei traditori, voltandolo verso la parte di Gerusalenune ove visse e mori 1' uomo senza pecca, Gesij, e i piedi spinge per 1' altro emisfero volti al monte del purga- torio, ove il primo uomo, Adamo, pecco. Lucifero, il 25 male, sta cosi tra i due poll, del peccato e della reden- zione, e con la sua caduta origino il purgatorio che 6 mezzo di redenzione.

The leader of the revolt of the angels againat their Maker, and hence the personification of evil. Su la cima mormora e frondeggia la divina foresta del paradiso terrestre, nella quale, agli ultimi confini del nostro pianeta, ap- 15 parisce la mirifica visione dell' impero e della chiesa.

In forma di sfere si contengono e abbracciano 1' uno 1' altro; e, avendo per centro il nostro pianeta co '1 suo inferno e purgatorio, 1 Dio lodiamo. The angels, perfect spirits and ministers of God, who, ac- cording to Christian doctrine attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite , are assigned to three hierarchies and nine choruses or orders.

These terms were used in the Middle Ages to in- dicate, respectively, the following parts of knowledge, grouped as follows: In contrasto alia vertiginosa rapidita del primo mobile sta in sua quiete 5 fermo 1' empireo, il cielo della teologia, ove e Dio, con attorno i nove ordini delle tre gerarchie: Questo e il bene. Lucifero, il male, relegato nel centre della terra, e per ogni parte egual- mente lontano da quella vita, da quella luce, da quell' amore, che egh ne vede ne sente ne partecipa.

Tale e il sacro poema di Dante. E come avanza di 15 gran lunga le altre opere del poeta e del secolo, cosi ne tiene pur sempre certe proprieta che 1' eta nostra non tiene. Nella Vita nuova le apparizioni e gU atti di Beatrice sono tuttora intorno il numero nove: E il tre e il nove regolano tutta la visione e la poesia della Commedia.

La Trinita in mezzo i nove ordini delle tre gerarchie regge i tre regni, ciascun dei quaU distribuito per nove scompartimenti e cantato in trentatre canti a strofi di 25 tre versi, e i canti sommati insieme fanno novantanove pero che il primo dell' inferno non e che prologo a tutti. Astronomical term used to indicate the ninth heaven.

La quale e popolare. Tutta popolare e la primordiale materia fan- tastica della Conmiedia. La vita futura, di cui questa presente e a pena una falsa adombrazione e puo meglio essere una pia preparazione, era stata il sommo pen- 15 siero, tutto il pensiero, del popolo del medio evo, anzi di tutto il popolo cristiano da dodici secoli.

Dante fu la voce di dodici secoli cristiani, che davanti alle visioni intravedute nelle allucinazioni di lor mescolate memorie ed origini, elleniche, italiche, semitiche, drui- 20 diche, odiniche, rimasti erano muti e allibiti di terrore e d' ignoranza.

A kind of poetry of the troubadours of Pro- vence imitated in Italy. The theory is exposed in the work De vulgari eloquentia. I lineamenti del viso attestano in lui il tipo etrusco, quel tipo s che dura ostinato per tutta Toscana mescolandosi al romano e sopraffacendolo. Di sangue romano vanta- vasi egli; e il presentarsi della sua famiglia, come fioren- tina vecchia, senza titoli di nobilta castellana e scnza nomi fino a certo tempo d' altra lingua, fa credibile una lo continuita dai coloni conservatisi in citta e regionc men frequente d' affluenze germaniche.

Indi la profondita della sua visione nella sinccrita, 25 la intensita della rappresentazione nella lucidezza, la sicurta del cogliere il punto esscnzialc nella rassomi- glianza fantastica, il tono interiore nell' imaginazion passionata, il senso musicale nel pensiero creatore. There is no sufficient uutlionty, however, for such construction.

Tale nel crepuscolo estremo del medio evo o nel crepuscolo mattutino del Rinascimento esce Dante Allighieri, primo poeta personale, e gia potentissimo, 20 come piu verun altro. E a pena uscito ricongiunge la dottrina all' arte e 1' arte al sentimento, e 1' arte antica nel sentimento suo e popolare rinfresca e tramandavital- mente nuova. E tutto quello ch' e piii eccelso e nobile e umano nella poesia delle genti e in lui; ma egli ha 25 certi suoi tocchi che nessuno ebbe prima ne ha poi avuto.

Cio che noi facciamo ora, cio che da cotesta lapide si commemora, e piii che una festa, e piii che un fatto. Noi celebriamo, o fratelli, il natale della patria.

In the first case the reference is to the feast in honor of the goddess Athena Minerva. In Olympia the people of Greece gathered every four years to celebrate the Olympian games. Later, at the close of the Republic, such feasts were converted into Roman celebrations. At Athens, Herodotus read publicly his history of the war between the Greeks and the Persians.

The University of Bologna was from the very begin- ning deservedly famous for its studies in jurisprudence. There was born the his- torian Carlo Sigonio and in the province of Modena the great Ludovico Antonio Muratori E allc venienti aprirebbe le braccia Reggio animosa e leg- giadra, questa figlia del console M.

I volghi affollantisi intorno ai baccani e 15 agli scandali, diro cosi, official! Tanto piii siano grazie a te, o nobile Reggio, che neir oblio d' Italia commemori come nella sala di questo palazzo cU citta, or son cent' anni, il 7 gennaio del , fu decretato nazionale lo stcndardo dei tre colori. Risuonano ancora nell' austerita della storia 25 ' Epica Fenara. Both Ariosto and Tasso lived at the court of the duke of Ferrara. Probably on account of the fabled Phaeton whom Zeus hurled into the river Po.

The lines are qu ;ted from his poem La Mascheroniana. Sapranno i popoli di Modena di Ferrara di Bologna qual sia il popolo di Reggio, giusto, energico, generoso; e si animeranno ad emularvi nella carriera della gloria e della virtu. L' epoca della nostra Re- pubblica ebbe il principio fra queste mura; e quest' 10 epoca luminosa sara uno de' piii bei momenti della citta di Reggio. II presidente del Congresso Cispadano dicea vero.

Quale spirito di Dio scese dunque in cotesta sala a illuminare le menti, a rivelare tutta insieme la visione 1 Congresso Cispadano, i. Cispa- dano, from cis, on this side right , and padanus, from Padus, Po.

Like the Greek goddess Hestia the Roman Vesta pre- sided over the public and private hearths. Caius Sempronius Gracchus B. The right of Roman citizenship was later given by Julius Cffisar to the population of Transalpine Gaul. Where the emperor Frederick Barbarossa was defeated in by the united forces of the communes of Lombardy Lombardian League. Montechiarugolo is a village near Par- ma. There, in a detachment of Austrian soldiers was taken prisoner by a body of volunteers from Reggio.

Gavinana, in Tuscany, is the place where the patriot Francesco Ferruccio was defeated and killed 1. Non rampare di aquile e leoni, non sormontare di belve rapaci, nel lo santo vessiilo; ma i colori della nostra primavera e del nostro paese, dal Cenisio all' Etna; le nevi delle alpi, r aprile delle valli, le fiamme dei vulcani, E subito quel colori parlarono alle anime generose e gentili, con le ispirazioni e gli effetti delle virtu onde la patria sta 15 e si augusta: Noi che 1' adorammo ascendente in Campidoglio, 25 noi negli anni della fanciullezza avevamo imparato ad amarla e ad aspettarla dai grandi cuori degli avi e dei padri che ci narravano le cose oscure ed alte preparate, tentate, patite, su le quali tu splendevi in idea, piii che ' The allusion is very likely to a popular song that begins with the lines: Ora la genera- zione che sta per isparire dal combattuto e trionfato campo del Risorgimento, la generazione che fece lo r Unita, te, o sacro segno di gloria, o bandiera di Mazzini di Garibaldi di Vittorio Emanuele, te com- mette alia generazione che 1' unita deve compiere, che dee coronare d' idee e di forza la patria risorta.

Se una favilla vi resti ancora nel sangiie dei vostri padri del Quarantotto e 25 del Sessanta, non vi pare che su i monumenti della gloria vetusta questo vessillo della patria esulti piu 1 The reference is to the revolutionary movement of Later in this page mention is made also of the revolutionary outbreaks of 18G0.

O giovani, T Italia non puo e non vuole es- sere I'impero di Roma, se bene I'eta della violenza non e finita pe'validi: Ma ne anche ha da essere la nazione lo cortigiana del Rinascimento, alia merce di tutti: The glorious revolution of the citizens of Milan in which lasted five days.

The people then succeeded in driving the Aus- trians ficm the city. It must be said that vic- tory at San Martino was hastened by the decisive victory of the allied French army at Solferino. One of the hills of Rome. There Garibaldi tried in vain to de- fend Rome against the French in The regular Italian army entered Rome, Sept.

Tornate, o giovani, alia scienza e alia conscienza de' padri e riponetevi in cuore quelle che fu 11 sentimento il voto il proposito di quel vecchi grand! L' Italia avanti tutto! L' Italia sopra tutto! In Italian poetry a verse is a rhythmic line made up of a fixed number of syllables, stressed and unstressed.

By tonic accent is meant the stress placed upon the most strongly pronounced syllable of a word, and, according to the position of such accent, words themselves are divided into three classes: Piane are called such words as have the ac- cent upon the penultimate syllable, as mare; sdruc- ciole, such as have it upon the antepenultimate, as nohile; tronche, such as have it upon the last syllable, as cittd. There are also words with the accent upon the fourth and even the fifth syllable from the last, but they are very rare.

By rhythmic accent is meant the special emphasis given to certain tonic ac- cents in a fine so as to obtain a certain division of time. From the position of the rhythmic accents de- pends altogether the harmony of verse. For rhythmic necessity, the tonic accent of some words may be displaced, as from umile, umilc; oceano, ocedno; iencbre, ienebre, etc. A verse may be piano, sdrucciolo or tronco ac- cording as it ends with a piana, sdrucciola or tronca.

But since a verse must always be considered piano, as far as the number of syllables is concerned, it follows that all syllables after the last one stressed count as one, and when the verse is tronco a syllable must be supplied after the last accent.

Thus the following lines are settenari lines of seven syllables , although the second contains eight syllables and the third only six: Orba di tanto spiro Cosi percossa attonita La terra al nunzio sta Manzoni V. In counting the syllables of a verse syneresis, dieresis and elision must be taken into account.

Syneresis is the coalescence of two consecutive vowels. Purpurea veste di ceruleo lembo Petrarca 2. Sparse per la funere-a campagna Foscolo Note 1. The dieresis occurs almost invariably between two vowels of which the first is either o, e, or a and the second is accented.

E cominciommi a dir soave e plana Dante Te beata gridai per le felici Foscolo Or da piiura, or da vergogna offese Petrarca Note 2. The dieresis is obligatory at the end of a hnc be- tween two vowels of which the first is stressed.

Elision is the contraction of two syllables into one when of two consecutive words in a verse the first ends and the next begins with a vowel. Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e I'acque Carducci Note. When the first of two consecutive words ends with a stressed vowel, eUsion does not take place. Pero pur va ed in andando ascolta Dante Remark. The line Plaudono i monti al carme e i boschi e 1' acque shows that elision takes place also in the case of three consecutive vowels.

It must be borne in mind, however, that elision may mean con- traction or fusion of vowels only as far as the counting of syllables is concerned. In reading, the sound of each vowel cannot be wholly obliterated. In this case elision simply means that the length of time otherwise necessary to pronounce distinctly two or three con- secutive vowels must be reduced to one-half or one- third respectively.

According to the number of syllables, verses are named as follows: Of these, the first four called versi hrevi need have but one rhythmic accent upon the last tonic syllable.

The ottonario, novenario, decasillabo and en- decasillabo, known as versi lunghi, may be considered as formed by the fusion of two versi brevi. They have at least two rhythmic accents, one upon the last tonic syllable of the verse, the other upon the tonic imme- diately preceding the point of fusion of the two versi brevi.

The following are examples of versi lunghi: In verses like this, having the rhythmic accent upon the fifth and eight syllable, there is usually a third accent upon the second syllable. The sonnet is usually written in endecasillabi but shorter lines are sometimes used see Visione. According to the order of rhymes we may have various schemes. Of these, only the follow- ing are illustrated in the selections given.

Volgono al lido, omai perduto, in tanto s Le memorie la faccia lacrimosa; E vinte le speranze in faticosa Vista s' abbatton sovra il remo infranto. Ma dritto su la poppa il genio mio Guarda il cielo ed il mare, e canta forte lo De' venti e de le antenne al cigolio: Voghiam, voghiamo, o disperate scorte, Al nubiloso porto de 1' obllo, A la scogliera bianca de la morte.

Metre — Third scheme. Passa la nave mia colma d' obUo Per aspro mar. Passa la nave mia con vele nero, Con vele nere pc '1 selvaggio maro. Ei t' esorta e ti punge, e tu co '1 lento Giro de' pazienti occhi rispondi.

Da la larga narice umida e nera lo Fuma il tuo spirto, e come un inno lieto II mugghio ne '1 sereno aer si perde; E de '1 grave occhio glauco entro V austera Dolcezza si rispecchia ampio e quieto II divino de '1 pian silenzio verde. Metre — Second scheme. Metre — First scheme. Sacred to the ancients because ofifered in sacrifice; for the poet it is the symbol of labor.

The marshes extending along the seashore between Pisa and Civitavecchia, not far from Rome. For there the poet was born, and his lion-like nature and his disdainful lyre may be a reflection of the rugged aspect of his native country. Oh, quel che amai, quel che sognai, fu in vano s E sempre corsi, e mai non giunsi il fine; E dimani cadro.

Ma di lontano Pace dicono a '1 cuor le tue colline Con le nebbie sfumanti e il vcrde piano Ridente ne le pioggie mattutine. Apriva 1' anima pensosa 1' ale Bianche de' sogni verso un' idea. Each line is formed of two quinari coupled together.

Notice that the first qidnario of lines 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14 is sdrucciolo. Similarly Petrarch in a sonnet A Valchiuaa: Ben riconosco in voi 1' usate fomne. IS Tu fior de la mia pianta Percossa e inaridita, Tu de r inutil vita Estremo unico fior, Sei ne la terra fredda, 2o Sei ne la terra negra; Ne il sol pill ti rallegra Ne ti risveglia amor.

Metre — The poem is written in settenari arranged in quartine having the following distribution of rhymes: Gira su' ceppi accesi Lo spiedo scoppiettando: Metre — See Pianto Antico. Imitation op Latin Metres. In the fifteenth century there was an attempt in Italy to imitate Latin metres. The quantita- tive system was first introduced and verses were written without consideration for word-accent. It was altogether a failure, how- ever. Later on it was observed that Latin verse read with re- gard to tonic accent, and not with regard to arsis and thesis, gave the harmony of Itahan verse.

Then the vast preponderance of 1 The poet sketches in this poem the usual and typical Italian scenes of late vintage time. Martin's day falls on Nov. To Car- ducci is due the honor of having fixed with laws this form of poetry, that he called Barbara, and of which he is the highest exponent. The two Latin alcaics are rendered in Italian by two decasillabi made up of one quinario piano and one quinario sdrucciolo. The third Latin verse, a trochaic dimeter, is rendered with a novenario, and the fourth, composed of two dactyls and a trochaic dipody, with a decasillabo.

The latter may be formed in the following ways: By coupling two quinari. IL By using a decasillabo with rhythmic accents on the third, sixth and ninth syllable.

By a verse made up of a quinario sdrucciolo and a quadernario piano. By a verse which corresponds to an endecasil- labo shortened of its first syllable.

In this poem, the fourth line of each stanza follows scheme I. The river Adige divides Verona into two sections which are connected by several large bridges. Verona became the rcaidcnco of Theodoric after he defeated Odoacer tliorc in The barbarians brought into Italy by Odoacer in were called Heruli.

Thcodoinir, father of Theodoric, after Attila's death freed his nation from the yoke of the Huns and became the head of the Amal dynasty, which for two centuries ruled over the Ostrogoths. That is, sacred to Odin, who in the Scandinavr'an mythology is the chief of the gods.

The mercy of the conquerors was implored in the name of religion by the unarmed descendants of the Romans. Italy w;us united in In this poem the fourth line may follow any one of the schemes.

Of all the poets who have written Napoleonic odes Hugo, Byron, Manzoni, Lamartine, Verlaine Carducci is perhaps the one who has shown most poetically the Nemesis of the Bonaparte family.

That is, the glory and empire which the prince hoped to at- tain; fantasmi, because unattained. The young duke of Reichstadt, son of Napoleon I, who was held practically as a prisoner by his maternal grandfather at the court of Austria, and there brought perhaps to a premature death for reasons of state largely in the manner suggested by the poet.

Marie Louise, however, was able to see her dying son. Such was not to be the fate reserved to the son, es- pecially in view of the father's uncontrasted supremacy in Evrope at the time of the Crimean war. Because with the fall of Sebastopol the Crimean war came practically to an end. The prince was born in , at the time when the former splendor of the Bonaparte seemed to be permanently restored and at a time most ominous for the future.

The Vendome Column, erected by Napoleon I in At the time, really, to the oppressed peoples of Europe and especially to the Italians, the Napoleonic dynasty appeared as a beacon of hope. The reference is to the punishment that sooner or later is meted out to whomsoever tries to further his private interest through usurpation. The closing lines of a short study by Carducci Vol.

Fu la giustizia; la quale altro non e che 1' armonia dei fatti umani e cho nei fatti umani svolgendosi annuUa e vendica prima o poi le offese recate al diritto. Noi che erediamo al diritto, alia giustizia, alia liberta, amiamo credere aneora che Lipsia e Waterloo facessero la vendetta del 18 brumaio, e che il regno e la caduta ingloriosa del nepote fossero debita espiazione non pure al 2 diceinbre, ma alia usurpazione, al dispoti.

Non s' inganna impunemente il genere umano n6 coi plebisciti ni colle vittorie. Poetic for tossico, poison. Where Napoleon I was born.

Letizia is but the Latin Icetitia, joy. From a note by Carducci. It seems, however, that expressions occur in Laplace's private letters inconsistent with the atheistical opinions he is commonly believed to have held.

The mother of Napoleon I never shared in the splendors of her son, but lived a disconsolate life till she died in Rome in Fatale is here u. Fatale is similarly used by Manzoni in II cinque maggio. Da gli occhi d' aquila. The reference is to the piercing eagle eyes of Napoleon L Cf.

Dante, Inferno, IV, , speaking of Caesar: Cesare armato con occhi grifagni. Boschi di lauro frondeggiano dietro spirando effluvi e murmuri ne la sera. Davanti, larga, nitida, Candida splende la luna: The fourth hne of each stanza is made up of a quinario sdrucciolo and a quadernario piano.

Niobe personifies in mythology maternal grief endured with dignity. Niobe had all her sons killed before her eyes. The episode is related by Ovid Metamorphoses, VI, et seq.

The great Italian patriot gathered a thousand of his former volunteers at Quarto, a small village near Genoa. Seizing two vessels, the Piemonte and the Lombardo, they set sail for Sicily on the night of May 5, The government of Piedmont was secretly in sympathy with the expedition.

This word may have been suggested here by a recollection of that line in Dante Puryatorio, VI, 78 , where Italy is bitterly apostrophized as donna. Italy had for centuries been deprived of a national ruler.

Military or traveling cloak Sp. Garibaldi had previously fought for the cause of liberty in. The volunteers could not assemble in a body since they were to arouse no suspicion. S Una corona di luce olimpica cinse i fastigi bianchi in quel vespero del cinque di maggio, Vittoria fu il sacrificio, o poesia.

E tu ridevi, stella di Venere, lo stella d' Italia, stella di Cesare: Italian patriot who organized before Garibaldi an unsuccesa- ful expedition to Southern Italy and started from Genoa on June 25, Byron, the author of Childe Harold, left Genoa on board the Hercules with other adventurers bound for Greece, where he died at Missolonghi, April 19, The family of Julius Csesar claimed its origin from Venus.

Pregnant with future events. Flebile, acuta, stridula fischia 5 la vaporiera da presso. Plumbeo il cielo e 11 mattino d' autumao come un grande fantasma n' e intorno. Dove e a che move qucsta, che affrettasi a 'carri foschi, rawolta e tacita 10 gente? In this poem the fourth line of each stanza follows scheme II. The double line of lights gives the poet the imprcs- Bion as if they were running after one another.

Similarly in Fuori alia Certosa di Bologna: And also in the ode Davanti S. Guido, speaking of two rows of cypresses: E fuggiano e pareano un corteo nero Che brontolando in fretta in fretta va.

And again in the poem Su I'Adda: Le mura dirutc di Lodi fuggono arrampicandosi nere al declivio verde e al docile colle.

The image is certainly striking but as yawning conveys the idea of drowsiness, so sbadigliando, here, seems to conipletc and strengthen the idea of the preceding accidtosi. E gli sportelli sbattuti al chiudere paion oltraggi: Adjective coined by Carducci.

The word generally means the load carried by animals. Fremea la vita ncl tepid' aere, 5 fremca 1' estate quando mi arrisero; e il giovine sole di giugno si piacea di baciar luminoso in tra i riflessi del crin castanei la molle guancia; come mi' aureola 10 piu belli del sole i miei sogni ricingean la persona gentile. Oh qual caduta di foglie, gelida, continua, muta, greve, su 1' anima!

Mescete in vetta al luminoso colle, 10 mescete, amici, il biondo vino, e il sole vi si rifranga: A me tra '1 verso che pensoso vola venga 1' allegra coppa ed il soave fior de la rosa che fugace il verno 20 consola e muore. Metre — This is a sapphic ode. The first three lines of the Latin sapphic are rendered in Italian with three endecasillahi, and the Latin adonius with a quinario. In the neighborhood of Rome. A young woman beloved by Horace Od.

Here, a fictj- j tious name of a lady. Morremo; e sempre faticosa intorno s de 1' almo sole volgera la terra, mille sprizzando ad ogni istante vite come scintille; vite in cui nuovi fremeranno amori, vite che a pugne nuove fremeranno, lo e a nuovi numi canteranno gl' inni de r avvenire. E voi non nati, a le cui man' la face verra che scorse da le nostre, e voi disparirete, radiose schiere, 15 ne r infinito. Addio, tu madrc del pcnsier mio breve, tcrraj e de 1' alma fuggitiva! A powerful pootioal vision of the scicntifio concep- tion of tlie logmdation of the sun's energy.

See Lecontc do Lisle, Lc dernier dieu in Poin. Da Cipri avanzando veleggia La nave crociata latina. Metre — This poem is written in novenari. Each stanza is composed of two quartine, each quartina hav- ing an independent order of rhymes i. A B A B C D C D with the exception of the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, and last stanza in which the order of rhymes is as follows: In form, the poet has imitated the metre of the romance.

For a comprehensive view of the story of Rudel, the reader is referred to a masterly study by Carducci in Studi Saggi e Discorsi. The following translation by Carducci from a Provencal manuscript of the thirteenth century will throw, it is hoped, sufficient light on the poem: Innamorossi della contessa di Tripoli senza vederla, per lo gran bene e la gran cortesia ch' egli sent! E per volonta di vederla si crocio, e misesi in mare per andare a vederla.

E allora nella nave lo prese una grande malattia, si che quelli che erano con lui pensarono ch' ei sarebbe morto nella nave; ma tanto fecero che lo condussero a Tripoli in un albergo per morto.

E fu fatto assapere alia contessa; ed ella venne a lui al suo letto, e preselo entro le sue braccia. E quando egli seppe ch' era la contessa, si ricovro il vedere, 1' udire e lo spirare; e lodo Iddio e il ringrazio che gli aveva la vita sostenuta tanto ch' ei 1' avesse vista. E in questo mori tra le braccia della contessa. Ed ella lo fee? In vista a la spiaggia asiana 5 Risuona la nota canzone: Messaggio vengo io del signore Di Blaia, Giaufredo Rudel.

Blaye, a town north of Bordeaux whence Rudcl started on his journey. In the Asiatic provinces of Syria; the city was taken from the Mohammedans by the Crusaders in Vinors do terra loinRdana, Per vos totz lo cors mi dol. Le son du cor s'aJJUye vers lea bois. Ei viene e si muor. Vi saluta, j Signora, il poeta fedel.

S La dama guardo lo scudiero 1 A lungo, pensosa in sembianti: Poi surse, adombro d' un vel nero La faccia con gli occhi stellanti: II primo al fedele rechiamo ' E r ultimo motto d' amore.

Deh fa che a la dolce sua mano ; 2o Commetta 1' estremo respir! La favola breve e finita, II vero immortale e 1' amor. In dcr Liebe nur ist Wahrheit, Und dich licb' ich, ewig Schone. Vi aspetto al novissimo bando. Stress upon the last syllable is, of course, employed and in accordance with Carducci's usage.

Often used as a noun. OJUu used as a noutt. OJten used as a noun. Antiochia, a province in Asia. Appennino and Appennini, Aj - peniiines. Often used 06 a noun. Cenisio, the Mont-Cenis in the Alps, cento, hundred, centro, center, ceppo, block, log. Cipri, the island of Cyprus.

Dio, God; pet — , in the name of heaven. Emilia, a territorial division of Italy in which Bologn,a is located. There the theo- logians placed the seat uf God. Gil estensi, the ducal family of Este. Etna, the volcano in Sicily. Fiesole, a suburb of Florence. Germania, Germany, germanico, German, germe, m.

Literally, the term applies to each of the three divisions of the seventh circle of Dante's "Inferno. Libano, Lebanon a chain of mountains along the seacoast of Syria. Marsiglia, Marseilles French city on the Mediterranean.

Mincio, Mincius a river in Lomhardy crossing the coun- try where Virgil was born. Used also re- fiexively. Past part, of morire. Often used instead of a relative pronoun. Often used for em- phasis. Often redundant or used for emphasis. Used also as a noun, chmbing. Often used as a noun, fermentation. Rinascimento, Renaissance rinfrescare, to refresh.

Past part, of scrivere. Sparse, past part, of spargere. Past part, of 6ssere. Tavola, — rotonda, the poems of the Round Table, tavola, table; picture, te, you, to you. Tirreno, Tyrrhene sea a part of the Mediterranean sea along the western coast of Italy. Literally, the word has reference to the revival of classical learning during the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- turies.

Used also as a noun. Often used instead of essere to form the passsive construction. Catlicrine, Catherinette ct Catarlna, Boards,,.

Game of tlie Caesars In a box 1. Le Gendre de M. How to Judge a Horse — 1. Una Notte Bizzarra Benito, El Voto, Fucgo h Bordo French Verbs at a Glance Fables Choisies de la Fontaine Boards,. Der Praktische Deutsche — 1.

Le Testament de C6sar Girodot Langue Fraugaise, La 2me parlie — 1. Le Petit Tambour see Bourn Bourn. STodcrn Biding and Horse Educa- tion — 2. Beck's French Verb Form Maupassant's Contes et Nouvelles Simple Grammaire Francaise — l.

Rostand's Cyrano dc Bcrgcrac. En Voyage foi toun? Common Dirticultics in Readins French — 1. B, I'oquelin de Mulif: Chatcaubriand'si Atala, with Notes and Vocabulary C. Progi'essive Pronouncing French Reader Bds,. La Lingua Italiana — 1. French Verb Form Boards,. D, Alarcon's El Final de Norma 75 1. Manual of French Verbs —.

Well printed and have notes in English by competent authorities. Diez de la Cor- tina, B. Glance at the Difficulties of German Grammar —.

Salvptte et Bemadou, Dn Teneur de Livres. Drillmaster in German — 1. Constructive Process for Learning German — 1. M DuCroquet's French Verbs —. Lectures et Conversations, Boards,. An Elementary French Grammar.. Brief Italian Grammar with Exercises —. Claretie's La Frontifcre L'Ami Fntz Comddie a. Fra le Corde di im Contrabasso Fables Choisies Beck Boards,. Game nf Mythology In a Box. Chateaubriand's Les Avcntures du Demiti Abencerage C0 — — GAY. Alexandre's Catherine, Catherinette et Catarina, Boards,.

Men Livrede Petitc-s Histoirea 1. La Duchesse Couturifero La Pluie et le Beau Temps About's Le Buste French Verb Drill Tablet Form,.

Cabana's El Desddn Con el Desdfe Vent d'Ouest and La Soupifere Lessons in Botany — 1. Quatre-Vingt-Treize Half Leather, 3.

Shakespeare Calendar PeriJetual 1. Bohemian Legends and Other Poems 50 1. Le Voyage de M. Sandcan's La Roche aux Mouettes. Antour d'un Berccau French Grammar Collet Boards,. Contes de Balzac — 1. ITeneros' La Indepeiidencia Sardou's Le Pcrle Noire Iklp for tlie SlUfly of French —.

Russell's Horace's Art of Poeti-y —. Le Verbe en quatre tableaux synnptique. Lo Voyage de M. Estebanez's Un Drama Nuevo L'Auberge and other stories including: Drill in French Pronunciation and Reading Boards,. Les Deux Souuu W Le Bourgeois Geiitilliomme Les I'recieuses Itidicules Maid of Montauk Net, - l.

Bornier's La Kille do HoKand F, Proveufal Lyric iioaids,:! Seo Songs with Music. LivTC do I'lSleve — l. OQ du Maltrc — 1. Protection of Woodlands — 3. Each has explanatory notes in English.

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From every part of Italy young men came to Bologna, caught the inspiration of the master and, passing out, perpetuated and spread the doctrines received. Finally, better to under- stand the work of Carducci as a teacher, it must be observed that the greater part of his production in the field of criticism was primarily part of his professional work and accordingly his best writings show him both as scholar and as teacher. As a writer of prose Carducci has fulfilled the secular tradi- tion of Italy that great poets must also be great prose writers.

Rouglily classified in terms of subject-matter Ms prose writ- ings — some twenty volumes in aU — fall into the following groups: Critical and biographical studies of great literary artists — such as Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Manzoni.

A large quantity of prose of a personal character, pole- mic and professional in form, dealing with various questions in literature, politics, art, criticism.

Of tliis last class especially excellent productions are the controversy, "Criticism and Art" and the "Defense of Qa ira. A partial criticism he abhorred. He opposed the view that criticism consists in the separate treatment of various aspects.

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Through his commemorative orations Carducci has also left a lasting impression, and especially by those in memory of heroes of the Italian Risorgimento.

Masterly in form and in style, warm, serene, and always noble, each ora- tion seems to be a paean that bursts spontaneously and irre- sistibly from the soul. Carducci was an Italian and a great poet; warmth and impetuosity of emotion were native.

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And he, therefore, waged strenuous and victorious war against what he considered offenses against his self-respect and liberty as an artist and a freeman. It may be that these controversial writings are on account of their very nature of lesser import, since con- troversial literature is more or less ephemeral.

Still they are examples of exquisite prose, and they do contain other elements than the personal. For, while defending himself, Carducci shows that he has at heart and combats for higher ideals. And it is these extra-controversial elements that give permanence to his prose of the last class. Considering Carducci's poetry we find, in brief, the same characteristics of content as m most of his prose. Here, too, the faculty of historical reconstruction is at play, working poetically.

The Patriotism of the poet, rhythmically beau- tiful, seems here more potent and human. In verse the poet embodies all the complex soul of the Italian race from the beginning to the present, rendering tangible and visible the intangible and invisible evolution of the national spirit. The poet could no longer keep down his inborn revolutionary spirit; he withdrew his allegiance to the party of monarchy and passed to the republican opposition.

After the defeats of G the poet's soul hovered on the verge of despair which was unfortunately enhanced in by the irresoluteness of the new Italian government that brought about Mentana and in by what the poet thought to be a penitential entrance of the regular Italian army into Rome.

The latter refer more particularly to the events from to In Ms art Carducci, gradu- ally putting aside a certain imitation of the classics, matures and prepares his genius for more original forms.

Here it is love, the pastoral quiet of the fields, medieval episodes expressed in epic lyric form and always an expression of nature esoterical and exoterical. The success of the book was immediate; the poet's fame was securely fixed.

There is in these poems more of meditation, greater sureness of touch, more self-possession, greater originality. They arc a promise of yet higher attainments. These were reached with the Odi Barbare. In this collection of poems the artistic evolution of the poet both as regards form and content come to its highest manifestation. For, Carducci understood that metrical forms ex- haust themselves as soon as they reach perfection.

Metrical questions are nevertheless of mi- nor importance in the appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the poems, of which many became really popular. In them the old emotions, the old enthusiasm persist tempered by age, imbued with other-worldliness. In conclusion, none possessed so diverse gifts of genius in such high degree as did Carducci. In him poetic genius is accompanied by a profound and erudite critical intuition; he had an incomparable gift of inspired oratorical speech; the faculty of expressing all nuances of thought in a prose that is of the most nearly perfect of wliich Italian letters may boast; in teaching he aimed at an apostolate, at a social gospel of light, liberty, and justice.

And so the whole of Carducci's work exercised an in- fluence upon latter nineteenth century Italian Uteraturc — an influence upon form and taste — only to be compared to that of Manzoni before Mm. As disciples of liis doctrines of reformation proceeds a whole family of Uving hterati, and his profound cult for the great traditions of Itahan genius, of which, as he used to say, men of letters should be guar- dians, lives and thrives in the productions of a new genera- tion, — so much so that the contemporary movement of ItaUan literature is to a great extent a Uving irradiation of liis genius.

Carducci was truly the artistic soul, the poet of new Italy. Ill his works radiantly Uve the griefs, the joj'ful and sorrow- ful realities, the hopes of his native land for a third time re- nascent. The poet fused into artistic mold the aims, the struggles, the aspirations of his own time, and so makes one of the majestic roll of those who willed that Italy should be free and great.

His name is joined with that of Mazzini whose Roman steadfastness of character Uves in a cult of ideal patriotism; with Cavour, the genius of poUtical fore- sight; with Garibaldi of honhke spirit, summoner of the nation to arms; with Vittorio Emanuele, the patient hero of governmental responsibihty and dynastic force. The years from 1S60 to nearly were for Carducci a period of poUtical and literaiy strife.

But the poet became reconcUeil to the national institutions to which the future of his country seemed to be committed; his Uterary labors were received with increasing enthusiasm, until from on acceptance was universal and his present glory was secure. And so the turbulence of the poet's youthful years dissolved at the close into an Elysian peace.

The highest honors finally came to him, the whole of Italy gave him his due of grateful admiration and affection for his contribution of goodness and genius to the glory of Italy. E la istruzione non fu per voi la sola occupazione un po' piu seria o un po' meno fatua della vita oziosa: Dopo I'opera dell' intiera giornata, di tutta una settimana, il corpo chiedeva riposo, e distrazione lo spirito; e pure studiaste.

Operai, coloni, ortolani, 15 lavandai, dovevate sorgere con la prima luce della mattina, o anche innanzi alia luce, svegliati dalla ine- sorabile necessita al duro e continuo travaglio; e pure deste alio studio una parte delle vostre notti: La lettura, il piii 5 difficile degli studi ed esercizi mentali, se bene o a punto perche primordiale: Si, la fronte, usa agii ardori del sole e alle intemperie del verno, si rigo di nobil sudore sotto il lavorio nuovo della fecondita penosa che agita- vasi nel cervello; e la mano indurata e callosa dai santi IS arnesi del lavoro tremo di gentil commozione seguendo su '1 libro di lettura le vittorie e le conquiste che I'occhio e lo spirito andavano tuttavia facendo di nuove parole ed idee.

Mestieranti, artigiani ed operai della citta; agri- 2o coltori, giornaheri;, lavoranti della campagna; che fre- quentaste le scuole serali con quel fermo volere, con quella costante appHcazione, con quel nobile amore del bene che vi si rivelava nel sentito bisogno di per- fezionare 1' essere vostro e del quale riportate oggi il 25 premio; io vi saluto e vi ringrazio in nome del popolo, che per mezzo delle societa collegate vi ha conferito quel premio e che e contento di voi; io vi saluto e vi ringrazio in nome della patria, la quale vie piu sempre cresce e si augusta del perfezionamento cosi di tutti i 30 suoi figli come di ciascun suo figlio per se.

Operai ed operaie, voi faceste bene. II vostro premio, nobile, saldo, immancabile, e s in voi stessi; nella conscienza la quale vi dice a cia- scuno: Tu hai fatto bene. Questa verita si addimostra nel fatto di uno che fu come voi premiato. E il premio noi non possiamo ne consegnar- glielo ne mandarglielo, da poi che il buon pastore se ne torno con la nuova stagione alia montagna, non 15 lasciando traccia di se o indizio del luogo ovc dimori.

Ma tra le ombre estive del monte o nei pascoli inver- nali del piano gli ozi del pastore non saranno piu, giova sperare, tristi e brutah come forse una volta, se lo con- forti la compagnia d' un libro ove egli s' industrii a 20 leggere cose buone. II Cosi e qui lasciate, o popolani premiati, che il mio dire sia con intenzione che meglio mi ascolti quest' altra parte di cittadinanza assai piu avanzata per quella via della quale voi avete toccato il principio , cosi lo spirito 25 dcir eta moderna invade anche la vecchia eta dell' oro, e r idillio si fa pur esso civile.

Temere, ho detto, perche v' ha lo chi non dissimula certa inquietudine circa i portati ultimi deir odierno affaccendarsi a spargere la istru- zione nei volghi, Fino a questo punto, si — dicono alcuni —: Quando sara 1' ora, il sole allaghera del suo splendore tutto il monte e la valle; e non vi sara seno riposto, non zolla, non arboscello, non virgulto, non filo d' erba, non germe, che non frema di fecondita 20 e di concezioni, di vita e di gioia, anche per solo un momento, sotto il riso del divino padi-e della natura.

D' altra parte questa opera del promo vere e diffon- dere la istruzione del popolo a cui la eta nostra tanto si accalora, non e, crediamolo pure, o signori, ne un 25 benefizio che noi nella generosita nostra impartiamo, ne del tutto o solamente un dovere che noi compiamo, una giustizia che esercitiamo.

V e in tutto cid qualche cosa di necessario e fatale: Anzi, v' c piu: V] 10 vecchia questa societa, questa civilta, gia informata e formata dagli uomini di chiesa, dagli uomini di spada, dagli uomini di commercio. Ne il tempo ne il luogo concedono ch' io di cotesta vecchiezza vi faccia la dimostrazione storica; e voi vi contenterete ad alcuni 15 accenni di prove ch' io prendero dall' arte e dalla letteratura, le quali sono pure la emanazione morale di una civilta, la spirituale irradiazione di un popolo.

Ora in letteratura e in arte Io spirito della societa nostra va sempre piii raffreddandosi, e la produzione 20 della civilta ogni giorno piu rimpiccolisce, ramme- schinisce, raggricchiasi. Non importa far questioni di generi, di scuole, di estetica; ma e forza con venire che v' e un processo storico di trasformazione degenerante. The poor guardian of herds who killed tho giant Goliath in single combat.

The word giocando is used by the. The reference is undoubtedly to Orpheus as tho mythical repre- sentative or personification of what is known under the cr.

In this connection it may be remarked that the famous French painter Delacroix represented in one of till' hemicyeles of tho library in the house of I'arliament in Paris, Orpheus bring- ing civilization to the barbarians and teaching them the arts of peace.

Morta la tragedia e la commedia; e a loro successo il dramma prima storico, poi sociale, ora, come dicono, realista. II fatto e che non abbiamo piu potenza a idealizzare, a rappresentare nell' armonico loro insieme tutte le lo essenze, tutte le condizioni, tutte le forme; e smem- briamo quello che e necessariamente organico, e dello smembramento ci applaudiamo come di un progresso deir arte.

Che significa il realismo con la pretensione sua ad esser cosa tutta recente, a regnare solo ed esclu- 15 sivo? Significa che non sappiamo o non possiamo piii inventare e imaginare, e descriviamo: I grandi artisti dei grandi secoli erano tutt' insieme realisti e idealisti, sociali e 2o individuali, storici e poeti, intimi analizzatori e for- matori plastici, uomini del tempo loro e di tutt' i tempi.

Siamo vecchi; e, come vecchi, deboli al fare, e larghi al discorrere; e ci avviene spesso che, in vece di fare, 25 ragioniamo. Abbiamo bisogno di discuter tutto, di vagliar tutto, di appurar tutto; raggruzzoliamo le so- stanze che ci rimangono, investiamo I'asse paterno, ne facciam I'inventario; brontoliamo, ci guardiamo alio specchio, per consolarci o illuderci su i segni del nostro 30 scadimento.

Non solo siam vecchi, ma vogliam parer tali: Ogni letteratura nella virilita e popolare per forza propria, per necessita dcUe cose: Quando lo in un secolo tutto civile e consuetudinario sorge una scuola letteraria la quale cerca e trova la unica sua ragion d' essere nel bisogno di proclamare altamente i suoi intendimenti popolari e di mettersi nella gran gala delle forme popolari, e crede di dovere e poter fare 15 novelle, poesie, libri proprio per il popolo, con 1' anima e in lingua tutta del popolo; quando cio awiene, vuol dire che quel secolo nel quale cio awiene puo avere del resto molte virtii e molti pregi, ma certo e molto lontano dalla virilita e dalla giovinezza dell' arte.

Ma basta di cio: A ogni modo, la intenzione mia non fu di dir male della vecchiezza: E non parmi da vero che 1' eta nostra s' illuda: A thought which ia fully ex- pounded in the selection from Critica e Arte.

Nel qual presenti- S mento e a punto la ragione dell' accostarsi che non ostante i crudeli intermezzi delle stragi civili, fa ogui giorno piu la borghesia, pe' 1 bisogno di rifondersi con nuovi element!

L' avve- nimento della plebe e una necessita storica: Ella, corrente primaverile di vita, in- 15 fondendosi negli altri elementi sociali li digelera, e 11 compenetrera mescolandosi. Allora lo stato, la reli- gione, la filosofia, 1' arte saranno veramente e santa- mente innovati, allora esistera finalmente il popolo; il popolo, uno, eguale, libero. Ill 20 Tutto cio che ha da fare con la nostra Lega? Oh, in quel grande e lieto awenire non arrivera certo e ne pur come lontana eco risonera, sarebbe pueril superbia a sperarlo, il nome o la memoria della Lega bolognese per la istruzione del popolo: E pure questa povera Lega avra fatto di tutto per aiutare e favoreggiare secondo le sue forze tanto magnifica trasformazione.

Ella ha fatto le scuole, e di piu ne 5 fara, per le donne che hamio ad essere madri delle nuove generazioni; e a queste donne, schiave inghirlan- date di una civilta che le insidia, le corrompe, le tor- menta, le mercanteggia adulandole per signore, ella intende a rendere con lo esercizio proficuo delle proprie 10 facolta quella indipendenza che loro spetta e che le dee far dignitose nel sentimento di bastare a se stesse. Ella a quella parte di giovane borghesia che e occupata negli stabilimenti dell' industria e del commercio com- partisce quelli insegnamenti che in tali esercizi la 15 perfezionino; al popolo fa scuole e lezioni e conferenze e letture, la sera e i giorni di festa, in citta ed in cam- pagna.

Ed e aperta a tutti che vogliono suggerire il bene, che vogliono operare il bene; e aperta a tutti i partiti, pcrche ella non teme la discussione, perche ha 20 fiducia nella verita. Solo da un partito abborre la lega: Ma la patria e la liberta sono: E sono cosi belle e sante cose, che elle vogliono 1' adorazione di tutti, che 1 Giardini froebeliani.

So called in memory of the great pedogoguc Fried- rich Frobel S52 who first created them. Ella fu certo una degna e molto onoranda fanciulla. Ma noi raccolti qui nel suo tempio sublimeremo, idealizzando, quella gentil figura di fanciulla italiana: A friar who helped in the struggle for independence.

He was for a time -nith Garibaldi and acted as field chaplain. Arrested by the Aus- trians in Comaechio ho was brought to Bologna and there shot August 8, , Ecclesiastical authority did not interfere in his behalf, hence the allusion Lc- low to "temporal and spiritual tyrants. Ella fu, Lucia nemica di ciascun cnidele, che lo sostenne co '1 suo volto, quando i carnefici, alia cui nera setta ei si era tolto per 1' amore di lei, lo rag- s giunsero, e dissacrarono il povero prete col ferro e col fuoco.

Noi col ferro e col fuoco ne men pur- gheremo i tristi avanzi della servitu e dell' abiezione: Vieni, o spirito crea- tore delle eta nuove: Un critico deve anzi tutto conoscere perfettamente la lingua, la letteratura, la storia del suo paese, da quanto uno che abbia il dovere d' insegnarle. Cio pare semplicemente naturale, non e vero? Come, volere o non volere, i modi e le forme del concetto e del lavoro arti- stico a noi, per le tradizioni e per la educazion nostra procedono in gran parte dagli studi classici, cosi il critico per me dee avere piu che sufficiente cognizione lo d' una almeno delle due lingue classiche e conoscenza ampissima poi della storia e dei modelli di ambedue le classiche letterature.

Noi siamo e vogliamo essere moderni: Delia letteratura tedesca e della inglese che ne pensa il critico? Egli sa di certo per quanta parte 1' elemento germanico entro nelle nostre letterature da antico, a come Inghilterra e Ger-? Una almeno delle due letterature gli convien dunque conoscere, e un po' piu in la della supcrficie. E con tutto questo il critico deve possedere 1' instrumento della filosofia e V uso della storia tanto da renders!

E di tutto questo dee avere avuto tempo e forza per essersene fatto con la meditazione 10 una sintesi propria. E con tutto questo non sara critico intero, piacevole, utile, se non abbia ingegno o facolta veruna di artista. La critica letteraria, del resto, ai giorni nostri non pud ne deve consistere in altro che nell' applicare a un fatto nuovo, o ad una 15 serie di fatti apparentemente nuovi, 1' osservazione storica ed estetica, individuale a ogni modo e relativa, ma che pure acquista valore da chi la faccia e dal fonda- mento che ella abbia in una lunga e razionale espericnza di esami e ralTronti tra piu fatti consimili e diversi in 20 tempi, in luoghi, in condizioni consimili e diverse.

Stando cosi le cose, voi capite bene, signor mio, che il pubblicar voi sotto il titolo di critica le vostre impres- sioni, o le reminiscenze dei vostri imparaticci di scuola, o il formulario dell' ultimo libro che avete letto, o i 25 piccoli amori e i piccoli odii di una combriccola di brave persone, e cosa che puo piacere a voi e fino a un certo segno anche a me, ma che non giova a nulla, non porta a nulla, non significa e non attesta nulla, sc non forse la vanita dei nostri studi e questa eterna frega 30 accademica che in Italia ci rode e ci mangia tutti.

Sara permesso a uno di darsi per quel che non e, di affermare quel che non sa, di mostrare una cosa per un' altra, senza taccia di disonesta, solo perche dice di scrivere articoli di critica? E quel che non si farebbe, o non si farebbe senza qualche pericolo, nel 1 Ragazzo. These remarks are addressed especially to the inexperienfed young man for whom criticism is a form of literature too broad and complex to be handled successfully.

E la impostura e la ciar- lataneria, e le ruberie e le mariolerie, non saranno piii impostura e ciarlataneria, ruberie e mariolerie, perche esercitate, perpetrate e commesse nel territorio della s letteratura? E questo abito della menzogna, questa consuetudine della falsita, questi sdruccioli nella vi- gliaccheria, non guasteranno ne pervertiraimo poi I'uomo e il cittadino, perche si mostrano nello scrit- tore principiante?

Ah, dunque voi avete proprio voglia di scrivere? Ma non vedete quanta folia in Italia di gente che scrive e qual rarezza di gente che legge, tanto che gli scriventi, i piu almeno, si riducono a riconoscersi e gabellarsi tra loro senza 15 che il vero pubblico si accorga ne meno che ci sieno? Del resto, anche se 1' Italia non avesse piii per cin- quanta o sessanta anni ne un artista ne un poeta no quel che si dice comunemente uno scrittore, o ne avesse uno o due soltanto, a me e a qualche altro non parrebbe 20 mica la fine del mondo.

A river in Sicily; hence the author means all over Italy. The reference is to the Italian language. It is true that the empty debate as to the spoken or written language was agitated in Italy for many years. Fortunately the question was finally settled principally through the efforts of Manzoni and Tommaseo, who by example more than by precepts showed that the good popular use of Tuscany was the best source to draw from.

Aspettiamo dunque che la maggioranza degl' italiani imparino a leggere; e poi scriveremo, o scriverete. Che se intanto gi' italiani imparassero a lo leggere da vero; se 1' Italia intanto mettesse insieme quel che le manca, cioe una coltura superiore e gene- rale, profonda e propria; se finisse 1' inventario del suo passato per poi procedere avvisata e sicura ai lavori e agli acquisti nell' avvenire; se scrutando severamente 15 il proprio petto vedesse di ritrovarvi o di svegliarvi quel sentimento della vita moderna, che ora non ha o solamente affetta imitando; oh, a cotesti patti potremmo bene aspettare!

Voi potreste, o giovani, andar cogliendo di su la bocca del popolo, da lo provincia a provincia, la parola, il motto, la imagine, il fantasma che e testimonianza alia storia di tanti secoli; potreste cogUere a volo la leggenda che da tanti secoli aleggia per entro le caverne preistoriche e i sepolcreti etruschi, intorno alle mura ciclopiche e ai is templi greci, su gli archi romani e le torri feudali; voi potreste ricomporre cosi la demopsicologia dell' Italia, e dai monti alle valli, lungo i fiumi e su i mari dclla patria, cooperante la natura, ritessere per tutto il bcl paese la poesia eterna, e non piii cantata, del popolo; 20 e preferite la muffa dei piccoli cerchi, i pettegolezzi delle combriccole, la letteratura delle fredde arguzie e dello stento?

Provate gli studi severi; e sentirete il disinteressato conforto dello scoprire un fatto o un monumento ancor nuovo della nostra storia, una legge 25 o una forma incognita della nostra antica arte, di quanto avanzi le misere e maligne soddisfazioni d' una troppo facile diagnosi intorno a un romanzo nato male o a una manatella di versi scrofolosi.

I giovani non possono general-j mente esser critici; e, per due o tre che riescano, cento ; lasciano ai rovi della via i brandelli del loro ingegno o; ne vengon fuori tutti inzaccherati di pedanteria e: Per i giovani e la storia letteraria e civile,, specialmente trattata per monografie: Peccato che prescelgano di andare nel numero del; pill! Tanti altri del resto gh rispondono, e nell': I Nel numero dei piti.

Quando le altre repubbliche allentavano il corso e sostavano in una quiete che era stanchezza, ella, r ultima nata delle grandi sorelle, aveva a pena preso le mosse: In Firenze, il comune, o, 5 meglio, la cittadinanza popolaresca che fu il nocciolo vero del comune, di mezzo alle schiatte nobili, tedesche e feudali, partite in guelfe e ghibelline, aveva con rigoroso ordinamento civile e militare saputo e potuto constituirsi in modo da acquistare un' azione propria 10 e indipendente, da infrenare le due parti, o, all' occa- sione, abbatter 1' una collegandosi all' altra.

La cittadinanza guelfa di Firenze, o, a dir piu chiaro, la borghesia, nel contrasto dei due poteri e delle due parti, fu neutrale ad un' ora ed attiva: E ben presto, per ricchezza di commerci, per esuberanza di produzione materiale e intellettuale, per prosperita e civilta interna, per influenza tutta popolare e indu- striale al di fuori, non ebbe pari, su '1 finire del secolo 20 decimoterzo e nel decimoquarto: Ella era la prima potenza denaresca d'Europa; le sue banehe fiorivano ad Augusta a Marsiglia a Parigi a Londra, negli scali d'Oriente: The reference is to the advent of the middle class to the government of the Republic by securing the election of the Priors of the Arts Priori delle Arti , that is, the chief men of each profession selected from the rich people and poor people populus crassus, populus minutus.

The executive council of the Priori or Signoria possessed the sole authority in the city. Ma i fiorentini non erano solamente e grossolana- mente banchieri e mercanti. E per tutta la terra civile cotesti mercanti e artigiani portavano il fino ingegno, lo scorto maneggio, 1' acuta osservazione, 15 il sentimento nobile della patria rcpubblicana: Ne il commercio ammolliva loro il braccio o ne rimpiccioliva 1' animo o ne fiaccava gli spiriti.

Fuori, i negozi e le banche spargevano le 25 fiorentine manif atture, moltiplicavano 1' oro fiorcntino: These were institutions similar tc the labor unions or trade societies of the present day. At that occasion, in fact, as many as twelve of the ambassadors representing foreign powers were Florentines.

E quando 1' imperatore o alcun de' tiranni ghibellini minacciasse il comune, venticinquemila uomini portanti 1' armi rassegnava la citta, settantamila si raccoglievano nel lo contado: E intanto in quel reggimento che passava per tutte le fasi di uno stato a popolo, con la partizione e lo IS sminuzzamento all' infinito del potere e degli offici voluto dalla gelosia democratica, non che per le vive emulazioni delle parti, le forze individuali dovevano manifestarsi, esphcarsi, incontrarsi per tutti i versi.

Aggiungete il sentimento generale che in paese piccolo 2o e raccolto piii facilmente viene educato dai personaggi gloriosi per poi alia sua volta educarh. Aggiungete 1' dccasione, gli stimoli, 1' insegnamento, che lo stato porgeva, risvegliava, forniva. Nel popolo di Firenze r istruzione piii che elementare era diffusa come oggi 25 nelle principali citta di Germania; molti libri di com- pilazioni e di versioni, oggi testi di lingua, eran com- posti per il popolo; e il bottegaio teneva sotto il banco 1 This also must have occurred at the time when the Florentines were boldly preparing to resist the pretensions of emperor Henry VII of Luxem- bourg and added a third circuit of walls to their city.

The emperor's sub- sequent death, however, put an end to this danger. Onde quella 15 varieta, quella molteplicita, quel contrasto di colori nella superficie della societa fiorentina: The author of the Istorie fioreniine, which after hia death were continued with less talent by his brotlipr Mattco. Terms which applied to the various divi- sions of the classical schools. The mourning over the dead.

Associations of laymen for religious purposes. Tutti i diversi element! However, four succeeding emperors in the same house of Otto came from Germany into Italy and were consecrated emperors by the pope. The fieur-de-lys, the coat of arms of Florence as well as of France. The house of Anjou bore an eventful part in the long fight against the house of Hohenstaufen for dominion over the kingdom of the two Sicilies in Southern Italy.

Lo slancio degli animi e degli ingegni in cosf breve spazio, entro si angusti termini, fu miracoloso, e non ha pari nella storia che quel d'Atene dopo Mara- tona: Per le quali cose tutte, Firenze su '1 finire del medio evo fu air Europa dal lato della coltura e della civilta secolare quel che era Roma per la religione, Parigi per la scolastica. With Cimabue and Arnolfo he was the creator of Italian art. Negli scritti del Machiavelli risorge, senza pompa di toga e spacciatamente succinto, il genio romano, pratico, ordinatore, imperatorio, accresciuto della energia tumultuosa e della forte pazienza dei Comuni, 5 avvalorato alia freddezza della contemplazione senza visioni dall' accoramento del cittadino che vede fuor di speranza cadersi sotto gli occhi la patria e la repub- blica.

E 1' uom si spaventa a con- 15 siderare come non v' e cosa per piccola la quale non si faccia immensa sotto la osservazione di lui, che r abbraccia la compenetra la riempie di luce per ogni minutissima fibra: Works by Machiavf Hi.

In Machiavelli was elected chancellor to the council of the Signori and later secretary of state. In such capacity he acted till He had charge of the political correspondence, diplomatical rela- tions and of the journal containing the deliberations of the council of the Signori which constituted the executive power of the Republic.

The reference is to the war that Florence waged against Pisa especially through the efforts of Gonfalonier Sodorini and Machiavelli. The allusion is to the tumult that broke out in Arozzo June 4, in an attempt to free the city from the signoria of Florence.

Gonfaloniere supreme magistrate of the Florentine Re- public, removed from office in The seat of the government of the Republic. Machiavelli himself shared the fate of Pier Soderini in after the re-establishmcnt of the Medici in Florence. Machiavelli n-as recalled in In Machiavelli was sent to Carpi, a town near Modena, to transact a petty matter with the chapter of the Franciscan monks.

Concern- ing this mission, Machiavelli had a burlesque correspondenc ; with his friend Francesco Guicciardini, the historian. The highest seat of learning in Florence. This institution was founded in and later removed to Pisa by Lorenzo de' Medici, with the exception of the chairs of Letters and Philosophy. Chi potrebbe senza ingiustizia negare al Commines e al ' In such commission was given to him, and just before he died a portion of the History of Florence was loft finished with a dedication to Clement VII.

In the contract prepared by the authorities of the Studio fioren- tino it was stated that Machiavelli should write the works mentioned in the text: At a farm near San Casciano in Tuscany, Machiavelli wrote most of the works that rendered his name immortal.

These words are quoted almost exactly from a letter of Machiavelli written to Francesco Vettori, then ambassador of Florence to Rome. II Machiavelli non ebbe forse 1' attitudine e r abitudine storica; e le sue Storie fiorentine sono per avventura piu tosto un gran Ubro di dimostrazione e 15 un' eloquente opera politica, che non una storia vera, esatta, fedele, ordinata della citta di Firenze; che anzi, e per la scelta critica e per la intierezza della esposi- zione, lasciano a desiderare, e appariscono piii che altro come la improvvisazione di un grand' ingegno.

Che 20 importa cotesto? II Machiavelli ha tre fasi e tre stili. NegH scritti d' officio, il segretario fiorentino osserva, pensa e scrive, awisato e arguto, spigliato e serrato, 1 Commines. Like Machiavelli he seems to bo rather indifferent to the idea of what is good or evil. What interests him is the abil- ity of the statesman to lead men and to direct public affairs. Jacques-Auguste de Thou , statesman and historian.

He wrote in Latin the Historia sui temporis for which he had patiently collected the materials since his early youth. The last three years of his life were saddened by t'jc bitter contro- versy which his work aroused. He wrote a History of Italy which, however, was left unfinished; a History of Florence from the time of Coaimo de' Medici to the time of Gonfalonier Sode- rini; autobiographical memoirs and lesser works on political questions.

Impe- rocche non bisogna credere che la conversazione se- rale del villeggiante di San Casciano fosse cosi idilliaca 2o com' egli ce la descrive nella mirabile lettera del 10 decembre , onde la ho riferita piu sopra: Egli con la vesta contadina spogliavasi ogni vezzo, ogni affezione nazionale e cittadina, e 25 neir atletica nudita muscolosa del suo pensiero.

The titles of two comedies by! The authorship of the Commedia in versi is however, uncertain, according to some critics. Da alcuni luoghi dei Discorsi su le Deche e dalle Storie apparrebbe che egli intendesse a 5 dar documenti e instituzioni di repubblica; dalla con- chiusione del Principe, ch' egli pensasse alia unifica- zione d'ltalia: Ma non lasciate illudervi al movimento passionato dell' istante.

Egli torna subito e tutto freddo a studiare cosi la patria sua come la patria degli Svizzeri e le altre 15 patrie antiche e moderne, a dissolvere e ricomporre cosi monarchie come repubbliche, a discutere dittatori e profeti, re e numi.

E stritolando sotto i suoi colpi il mondo eroico e il mondo sacro, e soffiando via con un alito il mondo artisticamente fattizio del Rinascimento, 20 prepara la rivoluzione e la informa alia pura energia del pensiero umano. Di Ludovico Ariosto non si pud dire che preparasse o incominciasse un rivolgimento ncUa poesia: Non che 1' Ariosto non sentisse i mali della patria e le brutture di quel mondo tra cui era sortito a vivere; che anzi se ne com- pianse e se ne sdegno piu d' una volta, e die anche lo qualche crollo per iscuoter via dalle sue belle ali di fenice la polvere e il fango della corte e del secolo.

Ma poi egh cercava e trovava per se e apriva altrui un refugio nell' arte. E 1' arte ei non tratto ne come un simbolo ne come un apologo ne come la dimostrazione IS di una tesi: Egli fece quel che desiderava, quel che voleva e ispirava 1' Itaha d'allora: Urbino grew up chiefly in the fourteenth century around the stronghold of the Montefeltro family.

Guidobaldo was the last duke of the Montefeltro line. After him the Delia Rovere family ruled over Urbino. The place became famous especially for the protection extended to poets and artists.

The refined magnificence of Guidobaldo's covit is eloquently de- scribed in Castigliono's Cortegiano. A very gifted lady of the ruling family of the Gonzaga in Mantua who became the wife of duke Guidobaldo of Urbino in It was surrounded by magnificent gardens. B Renata di Francia Like Lucrezia Borgia, her mother-in- law, she was very cultured and entertained at court the French poet Marot. Of Titian there are still extant several paintings representing Venus.

The greater part of these pictures are now in foreign f alleries Madrid, Munich, Dresden. A comedy by Ariosto. E la riproduzione della vita esterna, estetica e morale, d' allora: L' Ariosto, pur lavorandovi intorno con quella serieta che gli artisti grandi portano nelle cose dell' arte, non ebbe 1' intendi- mento di fare un poema, un di quel poemi di composi- zione riflessa che pur tengono si alto luogo nelle eta 30 secondarie di una letteratura: The title of the great epic poem by Ariosto.

Ma anche sottilizzo, e con poco adeguata conoscenza dell' uomo e del tempo, chi sosterme ch' e' mirasse a una parodia de' poemi cavallereschi, ch' e' fosse come il precursore del Cer- s vantes. L' epopea francese, che dovrebbe essere la materia sua, non gh e che mezzo: I'Ariosto, che 1' aveva fin da giovinetto ammirato, maturo lo continue: Ferrara con i suoi antichissimi estensi non era omai la 15 citta epica e romanzesca?

Ma della leggenda epica francese il fondo e storico; I'anima, nazionale e cri- stiana; la forma, popolare e primitiva come poteva nel medio evo: Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra , the famous author of Don Quijote. L' Italia si pre- sentava per 1' ultima volta nella sua sembianza cosmo- politica e romana di capitale dell' Europa; e come avea dato al medio evo il maggior poeta cristiano in Dante, 5 cosi diede al Rinascimento il maggiore artista pagano neir Ariosto.

Ed egli, come Michelangelo le statue bibliche, come Raffaello le Vergini, moltiplicava le sue fantasie di dame e cavalieri e amori per versar loro attorno tutti i tesori della divina arte plastica greca e lo romana. Direste che egli si compiacesse di veder tumul- tuare nel mondo fantastico da se creato un popolo d'imperatori e di re e di guerrieri e di donne e di giganti e di nani e di mostri e di spiriti e di maghi e di fate, per poi trarseli dietro ammaliati al suono dell' orfica lira 15 e attelati al suo carro infrenarli con le redini d'oro deir Apollo ellenico.

From "Del Rinnovamento Letteeaeio in Italia. After having presented with powerful concision of thought and form the various influences at work in the literary renewal in Italy from the middle of the eighteenth century on, the author speaks to the younger generation a word of encouragement and exhortation.

Ogni letteratura nella virilita e popolare per forza propria, per necessita delle cose: Quando una coltura c stata lungamentc iu- terrotta, quando il popolo si segrcgo per esaurimento o fu segregate per violenza dalla coopcrazione al lavoro letterario, allora e ben difficile che 1' arte intenda alia popolarita immediata. Nelle eta della critica il popolo, s anche quello elegantemente vestito, e da per tutto superficie: E quando in una eta critica, e per giunta consuetudinaria, certe teoriche si vogliono portare nel fatto agli ultimi termini, gli effetti riescono cosi meschini lo e ridicoli, che primi a non contentarsene sono quelli che le promossero; e non e questo il luogo da parlarne.

Pur troppo r Italia, non a pena risorta, si e impedita in un alessandrinismo barbogio che simula sforzatamen- te la liberta e la gioventu. Non importa far questioni 15 di generi, di scuole, di estetica; ma e forza convenirc che v' e un processo di trasformazione degenerante.

E pure, da poi che nelle condizioni della civilta un popolo allora soltanto ha ragione di esistere Cjuando reca nell' ordine ideale non solo una nobile operosit4 20 ma qualche cosa di proprio e di diverso e di continuo, e pure e necessario che 1' Italia rinnovi e rialzi anchc la letteratura e V arte sua: Germania e Francia, che finora si gloriosamente e prepotentemente influi- 25 rono neUe letterature della rimanente Europa, paiono, accennare a un riposo dalla produzione.

Si direbbe che 1' Europa, dopo tanti vertiginosi contrast! E questa 15 nuova operosita dell' Italia come si manifesterebbe? Se vero quello che ho posto, non parra audace per av- ventura il congetturare che ella fosse per tenere dell' in- dustre e sapiente eclettismo romano, della integrazione formatrice che la Toscana del secolo decimoquarto 20 esercito con 1' Europa medievale, della contempera- zione artistica che 1' Italia tutta fece nel secolo decimo- quinto e decimosesto tra I'antichita e il medio evo.

With the great movement of the Reformation the age of in- vestigation both historical and critical begins in Italy while sentiment, fancy, and artistic idealism gradually disappear. Carducci himself states that nulla doveva niancare a quella nostra universal letteratura del cinquecento. Delia svolgimento della letteratura nazionale, Discorso quinto, V. The sophrosune of the Greeks; literally, moderation, soundness of n ind. The term designates in the context the coming literature of Italy.

Non altre muse v' hanno oramai per gli animosi che la ragione e 1' ingegno illuminato e scaldato dall' amore del vero e del bello, ne altre 15 ispirazioni v' hanno che dalla meditazione e dallo studio.

Cessiamo d' essere un popolo di dilettanti e d'orecchianti, un volgo sensuale; e ritorniamo all' amore puro deir arte e delle lettere, sani, laboriosi, schietti, modesti. Non dicasi che all' Italia, tutta oramai data 20 ai facili godimenti ai subiti guadagni alle materialita, incresce 1' antica gloria, e non vuole essere culta e non intonde esser gentile.

E ci paia vergogna che qui, ove i banchieri e gli uomini di stato erano, come ora sono in Inghilterra, filologi e filosofi e scrittori, qui ove un 25 popolo di mercanti fece il Rinascimento, qui oggi le famiglie lamentino rinsegnamento classico ed e un ludibrio quasi impedimcnto alia rapida e pratica in- ' Arcadie.

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